PORTLAND, Ore. – Bitcoins, after surging 90-fold in value last year, have become an alluring target for hackers and thieves, spawning a growing industry of startups seeking to protect virtual currency investors against losses.
Since the inception of the currency, more than 35 major Bitcoin scams and thefts have occurred worldwide, including the heist of 38,527 Bitcoins from online exchange Bitcoinica in May 2012, according to BitcoinTalk.org.
About a dozen startups, from a coin-making company called Titan Mint Inc. to a marketplace called BitShares that lets people trade Bitcoins among themselves, are aiming to assuage concerns over Bitcoins vulnerability. Theyre offering everything from metal coins embossed with security codes to encrypted online accounts.
The risk is there, and that is enough to dissuade some users, said Nicholas Colas, chief market strategist for ConvergEx Group in New York. He estimates that more Bitcoins are lost to thieves and hackers today than dollars to bank robberies.
Since Bitcoins are stored as software files in wallets, or folders on websites, personal computers or smartphones, that makes them susceptible to loss to theft, failure or hacking. And because the digital money was designed to be difficult to trace, any looting is akin to a cash plunder – and harder to track compared to real money held in bank accounts.
The skyrocketing value of Bitcoins, to more than $1,000 in November from about $12 in early 2013, has made them a more tempting target and worth extra protection efforts.
Out of about 1 million people with Bitcoin wallets, as many as a few thousand have lost their funds, according to Andreas Antonopoulos, a Bitcoin security analyst.
The scope of theft is difficult to measure, since Bitcoins were designed to be a hard-to-trace, self-governing currency. Created in 2008 by an unknown programmer or group of programmers, the supply of Bitcoins is regulated by the software underlying the currency, which can be created only by solving complex puzzles embedded in Bitcoins code. The digital money is being used to buy everything from chocolates to digital cameras on the Web.
Michail Wilson, a 42-year-old systems administrator in Seattle, turned to physical coins from Titan Mint. Each coin – which will be available in gold or silver – contains a redemption code to unlock Bitcoins.
I like the idea of being able to hold something, said Wilson, who said he bought 230 Titan coins and later sold half of them to other people. I dont have to worry about it being hacked. I can just throw them in a safe and not worry about my wallet being hacked.
Once Bitcoins are stolen, it may be impossible to get them back, since a transfer is similar to a cash transaction rather than a reversible exchange between accounts. Bitcoin wallets arent protected, such as through deposit insurance offered by governments.
Financial tools that safeguard money, such as escrows and safes, are being developed for Bitcoins. Of the nine companies funded by Adam Drapers Boost, six have a strong focus on security, he said.
Having people think their money is safe is the most important aspect for Bitcoin mass adoption, Draper wrote in an email.
Scott Robinson runs Bitcoin Accelerator Program, a startup incubator in Sunnyvale, Calif. He said hes received more than 45 applications from startups. Of those, about 40 percent were focused on security or digital wallets, he said.
In Bitcoin, theres no central authority thats monitoring the risk points of account access, as in banking, said Richard Crone, CEO of payment consultancy Crone Consulting.
Theres no oversight. Theres no way of estimating what percentage of people using Bitcoin have lost money due to hacks, viruses and thefts – which should have everyone question the viability, given these vulnerabilities, he said.
Some developers of new Bitcoin-security technologies have background in cryptography and military security. Alan Reiner, CEO of Armory Technologies Inc., the maker of secured Bitcoin wallet Bitcoin Armory, used to work on missile defense at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.
Ian Purton, developer of StrongCoin.com, learned about Bitcoin while designing software for investment banks. Dan Larimer, who is building a more secure currency exchange, had worked on autonomous vehicles.
We have security problems, but we also have security opportunities, said Antonopoulos, the security analyst. We can innovate with money.
To reduce the risk of currency-exchange website owners stealing users money, Larimer and his team of more than 15 full-time employees are building BitShares, a Bitcoin exchange where the participants jointly run and manage the operation.
While users usually have to trust their money and data to a private company to buy and sell Bitcoins, the members of BitShares also double as safekeepers. Since the technology will be distributed as bits of software across members computers, no single person will have access to all of the money or the central system.
No company can run away with your funds, so you dont have to worry about that, Larimer said. Theres no central place to rob. His exchange is on track to debut this year, he said.
Another method to prevent theft is cold storage, or offline Bitcoins. Antonopoulos has created the Safe Paper Wallet project, which sells kits that let users print their log-in credentials on paper that can then be kept in a safe-deposit box.
I keep 99.9 percent of my Bitcoins in my paper wallet, Antonopoulos said.
Czech startup SatoshiLabs is releasing a device with a small screen and two buttons that must be used to initiate Bitcoin transactions. Money cant be moved without the device, making it more difficult for hackers to steal Bitcoins.
Another popular security method is to store Bitcoin passwords, as well as the actual digital money, as digital codes etched on coins and other metal objects, such as a plaque, to make sure they wont be lost in a fire or obliterated by spilled coffee.