SOUTHFIELD, Mich. – Houston car dealer Alan Helfman served a woman in his showroom last month with a credit score lower than 500 and a desire for a new Dodge Dart for her daily commute. She drove away with a new car.
A year ago, with a credit ranking in the bottom eighth percentile, I wouldve told her dont even bother coming in, said Helfman, who owns River Oaks Chrysler Dodge Jeep Ram, where sales rose about 20 percent this year. But she had a good job, so I told her to bring a phone bill, a light bill, your last couple of paycheck stubs and bring me some down payment.
As the fifth anniversary of the Federal Reserves policy of keeping interest rates near zero approaches, the market for subprime borrowing is once again becoming frothy, this time in the car business. As with mortgages in 2006 and 2007, the central banks stimulus is making it easier for people with spotty credit to buy cars as yield-starved investors purchase riskier bonds linked to auto loans.
While surging light-vehicle sales have been one of the bright spots in the U.S. economy, its increasingly being fueled by borrowers with imperfect credit. Such car buyers account for more than 27 percent of loans for new vehicles, the highest proportion since Experian Automotive started tracking the data in 2007. That compares with 25 percent last year and 18 percent in 2009, as lenders pulled back during the recession.
Issuance of bonds linked to subprime auto loans soared to $17.2 billion this year, more than double the amount sold during the same period in 2010, according to Harris Trifon, a debt analyst at Deutsche Bank AG. The market for such debt, which peaked at about $20 billion in 2005, was dwarfed by the record $1.2 trillion in mortgage bonds sold that year.
Shoddy home loans packaged into bonds by Wall Street banks fueled the financial crisis. Experience showed that vehicle loans are safer because the underlying asset can be more accurately valued, its easier to repossess, and people who need a car to get to work prioritize that payment.
Its a good investment for lenders, Helfman said. A person that has to get from point A to point B, theyre not going to jeopardize their job. They have to pay the car payment before they pay anything else.
His Dodge Dart customer with the bad credit had to pay an above-average interest rate.
It wasnt pretty, but it wasnt crazy, he said. She was so happy she couldnt see straight.
Fifty-eight percent of loans taken out to purchase Chryslers Dodge brand vehicles in October were with loans above the industry average of 4.2 percent annual percentage rate, according to Edmunds, a researcher that tracks vehicle sales.
The average loan for a Dodge charged an APR of 7.4 percent, and 23 percent of the loans had APRs of more than 10 percent, making it the brand with the highest percentage of loans for more than 10 percent, followed closely by Chrysler and Mitsubishi. Rates on subprime auto loans can climb to 19 percent, according to S&P.
Dodge U.S. sales rose 17 percent this year through October compared with a year earlier, propelling Chrysler Group to 43 straight months of rising sales.
Right now, you have to have fairly bad credit to be paying above 3 percent, Jessica Caldwell, an analyst with Edmunds, said in a telephone interview.
Late payments on subprime auto loans remain contained. After declining to as little as 2.83 percent in 2011, delinquencies rose to 3.1 percent of the debt in August, compared with 13.3 percent in 2009, Standard & Poors said in an Oct. 22 report.
The Federal Reserve Bank of New York, in an Aug. 14 report on its website, said it didnt see evidence that a disproportionate or unusual volume of new loans are being given to riskier borrowers.
An influx of new competitors into subprime auto-lending since 2010 is sparking concern of eroding underwriting standards, according to S&P. About 13 issuers have accessed the asset-backed market to fund subprime auto loan originations this year, according to Citigroup Inc.
Among the issuers accessing the asset-backed market this year are GM Financial, the lender founded in 1992 and known as AmeriCredit before it was acquired by General Motors in 2010, and new entrants such as Blackstone Group LPs Exeter Financial Corp.
We are still skeptical that all of todays subprime auto players will thrive, Citigroup analysts led by Mary Kane said in an Oct. 10 report. The successful companies will be those that can underwrite and collect on loans while holding costs and defaults to a minimum, the Citigroup report said.
Consider Exeter Finance, which was acquired by Blackstone in 2011. Moodys Investors Service wont grant high-investment-grade rankings to asset-backed deals sold by the Irving, Texas, company, citing its limited experience and performance history.
It has had higher loss rates compared with other lenders, S&P said in a Sept. 17 report. Julie Weems, a spokeswoman for Exeter, declined to comment on the companys losses.